Agriculture by region in Chile (Recommend)

2015-01-05     Source: Wikipedia
Agricultural land is divided into by five regions in Chile
Norte Grande

The Norte Grande region covers most of Atacama Desert and its crop agriculture is contracted around small oases such as Pica (Chilean name forKey lime is Limón de Pica) and Pozo Almonte. The use of water from Loa River and other streams is limited due to contamination with heavy metals from the mining industry. Some minor substistence agriculture is practised in Loa River. Recently these waters are being used for growing non-edible plants such as flowers. In Norte Grande's Puna plateau indigenous Aymaras practise traditional llama and alpaca herding.

Norte Chico

Norte Chico has a semi-arid climate that limits agriculture to the Transverse Valleys, namely; Choapa, Copiapó, Elqui, Limarí and Aconcagua. Most agriculture here is dependent on irrigation. Norte Chico is known for its production of grapes for Pisco and papayas. Other crops cultivated include olives and avocados.

Zona Central

Zona Central is Chile's agricultural and cultural heartland. With its mediterranean climate Zona Central hosts the largest part of the country's wine regions. Most of Chile's premium wine regions are dependent on irrigation to sustain vineyards, the necessary water formed by melting snow caps in the Andes. In the developing wine regions along the Coastal Ranges and in the far south, there is not a lack of needed rainfall but vineyards owners have to deal with other factors such as the Humboldt Current from the Pacific which can bathe a vineyard with a blanket of cool air. For the rest of Chile's wine regions, the Coastal Ranges serve as a buffer from the current and also act as a rain shadow. The vineyards in these regions are planted on the valley plains of the Andes foothills along the major rivers such as the Maipo, Rapeland Maule Rivers.

Zona Sur


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Aquacultre installations in southern Chile.

Aquacultre installations in southern Chile.Wheat cultivation, cattle farming, silviculture and salmon aquaculture are the main agricultural activities of Zona Sur. In northern Zona Sur Araucania Region was known until recently as "Chile’s granary". Wheat in Araucanía continues to be the main crop; however, production of oats and lupine has increased significantly. While the area devoted to traditional crops and natural pasture has tended to shrink in Araucanía, there has been an increase in artificial and improved pasturelands. This supports a substantial mass of livestock, including beef cattle, swine, sheep, and horses, and abundant production of milk and by-products.Salmon aquaculture is Los Lagos Region largest source of jobs and main export industry. Nearly all of Chiles and much of the southern hemisphere blue berry and cranberry productions is concentrated in Zona Sur.

Zona Austral

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Lambs in Tierra del Fuego.

Lambs in Tierra del Fuego.In Zona Austral sheepherding is a major industry since the 19th century. In Magallanes Region only, there is an estimate of 1.5 and 2 million sheep distributed among 300 farmers as of 2006. Exotic species likereindeers have been introduced in recent years. Agriculture in the north-western parts of Zona Austral (Aisén, Chiloé and Palena) focuses on aquaculture and silviculture and is similar to that of Zona Sur.

Evidence ranging from historical records, local agriculturalists, and DNA analyses strongly supports the hypothesis that the most widely cultivated variety of potato worldwide, Solanum tuberosum tuberosum, is indigenous to Chiloé Island and has been cultivated by the local indigenous people since before the coming of the Spanish.

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